Research Article

Nutritional Analysis of Fish (Sarotherodon galilaeus) Snack with and without the Fortification of Plant (Ocimum gratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum plus Vernonia amygdalina) Extracts  

Tina Agbon Ileogben , Olatunde Oginni
1 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Environmental Biology Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Animal, Environmental Biology Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Bioscience Methods, 2018, Vol. 9, No. 2   doi: 10.5376/bm.2018.09.0002
Received: 27 Apr., 2018    Accepted: 20 Jun., 2018    Published: 17 Aug., 2018
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Oginni O., and Ileogben T.A., 2018, Nutritional analysis of fish (Sarotherodon galilaeus) snack with and without the fortification of plant (Ocimum gratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum plus Vernonia amygdalina) extracts, Bioscience Methods, 9(2): 12-21 (doi: 10.5376/bm.2018.09.0002)


The study of the proximate and elemental composition of fish snack made from Sarotherodon galilaeus, with and without fortification of plant crude extracts Ocimum gratissimum (OGE), Vernonia amygdalina (VAE), and Ocimum gratissimum plus Vernonia amygdalina (OVE) was carried out to determine the effect of plant extracts on the nutritive qualities of the fish snacks. Twelve fish samples grouped into three class sizes (A, B, C), were used. They were washed, weighed, gutted, filleted, cut into pieces, staked on palm frond sticks and fortified with extracts, spiced and dried with a smoldering fire. Snack were analyzed for proximate and nutrients composition using standard methods. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA using SAS® 2008 version 9.1. Protein contents ranged from 48.35±0.13% (VAE) to 60.87±0.01% (unfortified), the highest lipid content 13.15±0.05% was recorded in the unfortified snacks and the lowest 12.85±0.23% for (OVE), carbohydrate 23.70±0.04% was higher (P>0.05) IN (VAE). Concentrations of Na (702.2±0.004 mg), and Se (2.44±0.072 µg) were higher (p>0.05) in (VAE). Energy value ranged from 403.57 kcal/100 g (VAE) to 416 kcal/100 g (OGE). Addition of plants extract and composite spice to the fish fillet had effect on the nutritional qualities of the product. The production of the snack would enhance fish utilization, food and employment security, as well as promote healthy snacking among the populace.

Fortified snack; Proximate and elemental composition; Ocimum gratissimum; Sarotherodon galilaeus; Verononia amygdalina
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